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How Electric Cars Really Work | Electric VS Gas Car

How Electric Cars Really Work | Electric VS Gas Car


Has it finally come? Is the future now? We’ve got jetpacks, hoverboards, holograms
– all the things we only used to see in old sci-fi movies! (Well maybe not the jetpacks so much…) And now: electric cars you plug into the wall
like a cellphone! So who came up with the idea, and how does
the technology really work? Before we rejoice in the future, let’s first
take a trip to the past… Oh, we’ll be going a lot further back than
you think. You’ll probably be as surprised as I was
to find out that electric cars aren’t a 21st-century invention. That is, electric-powered motors came out
pretty much at the same time as petroleum-driven engines (that is, the ones that run on fossil
fuels like gas and diesel). Almost two centuries ago, in 1828, a Hungarian
engineer named Ányos Jedlik invented the first prototype of the electric motor and
used it to power a small model car. And he wasn’t the only one with an interest
in that sort of technology. In 1834, blacksmith Thomas Davenport created
a similar device that could be driven at short distances using an electric track. Does that ring any bells? (Think streetcars later on!) And over in the Netherlands, university professor
Sibrandus Stratingh built a tiny electric car powered with non-rechargeable batteries. Now, even though the idea of a battery-powered
vehicle was to revolutionize people’s lives for the better, primary cell batteries (that’s
the “use once and toss” kind) weren’t the way to go for obvious reasons. They needed too many batteries to run the
motor over long distances at such low speeds. It wasn’t until 1859 when French physicist
Gaston Plante invented the lead acid battery that changed the electric engine game for
good. Many countries began producing electric three-wheeled
cars until the US made a huge breakthrough. In 1891, they created the first electric vehicle,
and get this: it was a 6-passenger wagon that could go up to 14 miles per hour. (Hey, that was major back then!) After that, people were thrilled, and the
electric car market thrived. In the late 1890s, electric-powered taxis
filled the streets of London. At that time, electric cars had many advantages
over steam-powered and gas-guzzling engines. They didn’t vibrate, they didn’t give
off that awful burning gasoline smell that we’re all familiar with, and, most importantly,
they didn’t require much effort to start. By the early 1900s, almost one-third of cars
in the US were electric-powered. But that wasn’t going to last long… By the late 1920s, infrastructure in the US
had improved significantly, and vehicles needed to go further more efficiently. So, fossil-fuel cars took the lead because
they got the job done. You see, the top speed that electric cars
could achieve was 15-20 miles per hour. That’s about how fast you can go pedaling
on your bike! Another problem was that electric-powered
engines back then could only travel 30-40 miles on one go, which means they’d need
charging every couple of hours. And things were about to take a turn for the
worse along with the improvement in infrastructure. That’s when the electric starter was invented,
and gasoline cars began using it alongside mufflers, which made their noise a lot more
tolerable. Electric cars took their final hit in 1910
when Henry Ford began his mass production of gas-powered vehicles, which made them ridiculously
cheap whereas electric cars cost a lot more. Companies then realized that there was no
room for electric automobiles on the market, so they stopped producing them altogether. Fast-forward to the 21st century. We now have advancements in technology and
a greater concern for the environment. Add a fear of running out of resources to
fuel our vehicles, and it’s no wonder automotive companies have decided to give electric cars
another chance. The main difference between electric and fossil-fueled
cars is that the E-cars can use a variety of renewable sources to generate their electricity. In fact, the science behind the electric car
is surprisingly simple. Its basic principle is the alternating current,
for which we have Nikola Tesla to thank more than a century ago. Before you understand the science behind that,
let’s back up and first cover the differences between direct and alternating currents (that’s
DC and AC for short…or AC/DC if you’re into hard rock!). An electric current is the movement of an
electric charge that carries electrons. An engine, for example, can be powered by
direct current – which means that the electrons flow in one direction only. For most things that run on DC, that’s from
the battery to whatever it’s powering. The electrons that move along an alternating
current, on the other hand, periodically and consistently change direction. It’s pretty much all the electric power
in your home, from your microwave to your game console. In short, if you could look at the two types
of currents on a graph, direct would be a flat line and alternating would have regular
uniform waves going up and down. Or, to put it even more simply, DC would be
like water running out of a bucket with a hole in the bottom. AC would be kind of like watching the water
swishing around back and forth if you open the lid of your washer and look inside. Ok enough of that, so what about electric
cars specifically? Well, most of them convert the direct current
electricity from the batteries into an alternating current. Since electric cars don’t have an internal
combustion engine like gas-powered vehicles do, they use their space quite differently. You’d normally expect a big bulky battery
to be in the front under the hood, but it’s completely different in electric cars. They have 7,000 lithium-ion batteries that
sit under the flooring! This battery pack has a longer lifespan and
a higher power density – which makes them ideal for powering a vehicle. But one of their vulnerabilities is overheating
and thermal breakdown. That’s why electric cars have coolant running
between them to prevent overheating. And there’s all kinds of interesting stuff
at the back of the car. That’s where you’ll find the inverter,
which is what converts that DC into AC and gives power to the engine. But it can’t do that without the induction
motor. It’s also in the back, and it takes the
alternating current that just came from the inverter and creates a rotating magnetic field
that causes the motor to turn. Now, electric cars don’t have a gearbox
or lever, and all of them are automatic. They have a single speed transmission that
sends power from the induction motor to the wheels. This is how the electric motor transforms
electrical energy into mechanical energy. That is, the physical power that turns the
wheels and sends you on your way! But here’s where it gets even more interesting. When you accelerate while driving, the car
uses more energy. But when you brake, the energy is transformed
into electricity through the induction motor. Then, that electricity travels all the way
back to the battery pack and is stored so that you can use it later! Now that’s efficient! An electric car gets “juiced up” by being
plugged into an outlet or a charging station, and they use three main levels of charging. The first level is the basic charging you
can do at home – it uses an outlet of 120 Volts and adds 2-5 miles of charging per hour. Then, there’s the second level – it uses
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment and has a higher voltage (220-240 Volts) to add 10-25
miles per hour of charging. Finally, the third and most efficient one
is the Direct Current charging station which does exactly what it says. It uses direct current to add up to 80% of
the car’s battery charge in less than half an hour. The cost of charging an electric car is dirt
cheap as well. It’ll cost you less than $5 to fully charge
your electric vehicle at home, and you can get up to 150 miles on one charge. That, of course, depends on the size of the
battery. Bigger electric cars with bigger batteries
can cost up to $15 to fully charge, but they can cover up to 300 miles. So, where do I sign? Now, electric cars are less expensive to run
and maintain if we compare them to fuel-powered vehicles, but there’s no denying that the
car itself comes with a much higher price tag. But still, according to a recent study, the
average operating cost of an electric car is $485 a year, whereas a fossil-fuel automobile
is $1,117. So, that higher initial price should pay itself
off over time. But there’s still another problem. One of the most expensive components of the
electric car is its battery pack. It’ll cost you an arm and a leg to replace
if it breaks down – expect anywhere from $5,000 to $15,000 for replacement! But most electric car manufacturers give the
battery at least an 8-year warranty for up to 100,000 miles if that makes you feel any
better about purchasing. The good news is that we’re seeing a huge
movement toward electric-powered vehicles as a strategy to tackle fuel emissions and
reduce pollution. The head of automotive research in Europe
predicts that by 2025, all cars in Europe will be totally electric or at least hybrid. And many countries are setting goals to lower
their fuel emissions in the next few years. So, who knows? Perhaps sooner than later, we’ll all be
zipping around in electric cars, and gas guzzlers really will be a thing of the past! What about you – are you interested in getting
an electric car? Let me know down in the comments! If you learned something new today, then give
this video a like and share it with a friend. But – hey! – don’t go buy your Tesla
just yet! We have over 2,000 cool videos for you to
check out. All you have to do is pick the left or right
video, click on it, and enjoy! Stay on the Bright Side of life!

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100 thoughts on “How Electric Cars Really Work | Electric VS Gas Car

  1. no, thanks. I cycle to work and anywhere I wish to go.
    it's cheaper and makes me feel less snob than the average person.

  2. the last word of latest battery technology is not yet spoken. Scientists believe there will be soon innovations what makes batteries more efficient. Especially during winter time, present batteries do not perform so well

  3. The government should have made this transition 20 years ago; Now
    A whole lot of are going have to die

    And America will have to Draft…

    We consume the most oil in the world and we have no control

    Over it! ☠️

  4. Electric Car is bad because there are no recharge stations in most of the streets in Asia, most of the cars will be a problem😂

    Btw: Im almost reaching 100 Subscribers! Any help would be appreciated 🙂 Thanks so much I tried my best making videos on YouTube

  5. Now in my fifth year of driving an electric car and my second model, I have never regretted it or looked back and thought of going back to a fossile mobile, or a fuel to noise convertor as some say . . . . .

  6. Electric Buses are ideal for Sub Urban travel in India.For Long distance travel like Intercity or Mofussil buses Hybrid Electric buses are suitable.

  7. We got a Nissan Leaf electric car in 2018. It was totaled in an accident (other driver's fault), and we got another one – a 2019 Nissan Leaf S. My wife regularly commutes with it an hour away. Our other car is a Toyota Prius. The Leaf does not use the battery cooling system like the Tesla does, so longer trips mean that the battery charging will take longer due to higher temperatures.

    I am an electrical engineer, and I have designed Lithium-Ion charging circuits, so I want to take a moment to discuss some characteristics of modern battery charging. The circuits we design for high end applications monitor voltage, current, and temperature. Much time is taken in researching maximizing battery life – so you can just plug the car in when it needs a charge, and the internal circuitry will take care of the rest. We have found that fast charging makes the car practical for us, and bear in mind that many batteries are designed to charge at the "1C" rate anyway – I have found that the Leaf will fully charge at a 50 kW DC charging station in about an hour. (A 1C rate means a battery will fully charge in an hour.) Finally, let me describe the charging cycle:

    The charging cycle happens in 3 stages:
    1. Constant Current
    2. Constant Voltage
    3. Float Charge

    Constant current means that the amperage is held constant at a high rate as the battery voltage increases. (Note: Amperes, or amps, measures current which means "coulombs per second". A coulomb is a unit of charge, or a fixed number of electrons – for simplicity, I will call it 1 zillion electrons. Watts means Joules per second – a Joule is a measure of energy like the calorie [we use kilocalories in dietary work] but just a different dimension. A 60 watt light bulb uses 60 joules every second to light up a room. It will likewise use 120 joules in 2 seconds. Watts is said to measure power which is how fast you are using energy. Horsepower which is 746 watts is a related unit, so a 1 horsepower motor will use 746 watts. Volts is joules per coulomb – it means that each electron carries more energy. watts = volts x amps (P=EI). By the way, joules, calories, and kilowatt-hours are measures of energy in different dimensions.)

    OK, so the constant current stage means the battery is getting the highest rate of electron delivery – it is at this early stage of charging that the charge increase the fastest. Once you get to the rated voltage, the charger switches to a constant voltage mode. At this stage, the current will start going down. Batteries are rated for these different voltages and currents. Once the current gets down to a certain level, the voltage is reduced to a "float charge" level. It is at this final stage where today's automatic charging circuits will maintain the battery without causing it harm.

    A word about "battery memory": Nickel Cadmium batteries, which are not used much anymore, were notorious for developing a memory effect. My understanding is that in the days before automatic chargers, it was much easier to overcharge batteries. Chargers were just simple power supplies several years ago – they gave you a constant DC voltage and you just plugged it in – when the battery was fully charged was anybody's guess. Regularly overcharging a battery increases the temperature to unacceptable levels and damages the battery. Back in the 1970's when microprocessors were very expensive, and before the development of smart chargers, it was common for batteries to become defective due to this abuse.

    The bottom line is that modern charging circuits, especially those on electric cars, are good at monitoring voltage, current, and temperature to optimize the battery charging process.

  8. Hey random one scrolling through the comment section.

    I hope you have a bright day ahead and may you achieve your dreams

    By the way I am on my Road to hundred subscribers. Any help would be fine. thank you

  9. By 2025 all cars in Europe will be Electric or Hybrid?!?! Nope just don't see that at all! Plus in UK, as Electricity becomes used more for vehicles, due to the loss of fuel duty to UK GOVERNMENT, electricity charging costs for cars will go through the roof, so absolutely no financial incentive to go electric or Hybrid.

  10. Well electric cars cant pull trailers and horse floats! They would be hopeless at farming, and thats would destroy the farming industry so gas car will never be a thing of the past!😕

  11. I have a very cool electric vehicle, a vehicle that can't go on the roads, but can cut even 15 cm grass. I would like to see a Tesla model S doing this!

  12. 9:03 what kind of not driving math are you using there? it costs me roughly $4600 per year to run my car. $2000 for fuel, $1600 for servicing, $400 rego, $600 insurance. (very rough figures). i want to buy a Tesla some day but for now i can't afford to buy a new car. perhaps in a few years when there are secondhand ones around i may be able to afford one. but for now i will continue to drive what i have.

  13. I have an electric car, it is a Nissan leaf car which I bought in 2013 but today only I knew history of electric cars and the way it work.Thanks,

  14. I found this video interesting. Norway, Sweden and other European countries , Japan and China invest heavily on electric cars which is a great thing.
    But India hasn't introduced a proper policy for electric cars. But it altleast reduced the cost of it which is a great thing.

  15. there are thousand of people making gas cars if you switch to electric to fast they will be out of a job thousand of people

  16. I live in Cyprus which is a small island and I barely make 100km everyday, that means an electric car will last up to 3 days in 1 charge, that's amazing! too bad they didn't implement any electric charging stations yet….

  17. Yes I would consider to get electric cars because it would not cause pollution to the environment

  18. Can't have the unwashed masses moving around too much. Gas powered cars are freedom. Electric cars are easily limited.

  19. 7:34 explanation of charging levels. 9:12 $5-15K for EV battery replacement but manufacturers offer 8-year/100K mi warranty, so fear-mongering unhelpful (:-( Besides, various third parties offer lower-cost replacement battery pack swaps, while others can service packs to swap out problem cells.

  20. My moms car is a Ford but not electric and my dads car is a half gas half electric Chevrolet car, when it has electric it uses it, when it only has gas it uses gas.

  21. If I can be a inventor I would make a car that needs WiFi to work so bring some WiFi with you when I make one (I wish)

  22. I already have an electric vehicle which is a Chevrolet Volt which that car is an extended range electric vehicle since it drives on electric at first for 40 miles of range and then uses the gasoline engine for extra range up to 300 miles and that is why I would not consider the volt a plug in hybrid because it operates differently than a hybrid.

  23. yes,as it will less pollute our country but no because it will cost much higher than gasline car as if battery damages

  24. San Francisco is really lowering carbon emissions
    its busses are clean air, clean air (with the cable above to power it), or hybrid.

  25. You make allot of fake vids like a plane that flew for 37 years but how can people not eat for 37 years

  26. I just designed a solar array based off one year of charging and in new England USA it takes a 6kw array producing about 7000kwh a year to charge a Chevy bolt.

  27. What if we could bust the Insurance / Government Collusion Cos., build inexpensive, small, limited range electric runabouts for neighborhood use with an EXTREMELY low cost (mandated by law) addition on the existing insurance premium and keep the ICE car for longer trips on the highway. Then, over time, the ICE cars can be replaced with larger electrics by natural attrition.
    Again…we MUST bust the Insurance / Government Collusion Cos. That IS the sticking point in this transition period.

  28. Electric cars also has a gearbox to keep the motor turning at his full RPM speed and increasing its torque

  29. Beautifully explained! I loved it. Everything relevant. Simple language and descriptive enough to remember. You need a drink!

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