Articles, Blog

Cars and Brasilia | Capitalism in Disguise

Cars and Brasilia | Capitalism in Disguise

19:55 Brazilian presidential candidate
Juscelino Kubitschek asserted his desire to move the capital Brazil from Rio de
Janeiro to an inland location this move would
fulfill the demands of the 1891 Brazilian Constitution which proclaimed
the need for such move since Rio was formerly the Portuguese colonial capital
in Brazil a move away from the city would signify Brazil’s moving on from
its colonial past in its assertion of its place in the modern world running on
this platform in the famous 50 years and five slogan Kubitschek won the 1956
Brazilian presidential election and set his vision for a new capital in motion
Juscelino Kubitschek promised to maintain, defend the constitution of the republic, to observe its laws, promote the well-being of Brazil, to sustain the reunion and integrity of independence. independencia the new capital city
called Brasilia was publicized as a city for the people of Brazil kubacheck
pushed this notion forward and attracted hordes of lower-class citizens to the
site of construction the city was built from the ground up in just under four
years and was inaugurated in 1960 thanks to the efforts of the poor populations
who flocked to the area to build the city they believed they were building a
sanctuary of equality don’t be their new home to show affinity with the common
population in their conferring president kubacheck visited the construction site
to commend those at work little did the workers know however that a city built
for the people did not necessarily include the people the two primary
architects recruited to design the city stood by outstandingly communist
principals and held personal views that favored a vision of equality
these people were Lucio Costa in Oscar Niemeyer Costas design of the city won a
competition between architectural firms over the urban plan of Brasilia despite
the fact that he did not even enter the contest his case was seemingly helped by
his friendship with President kubacheck and his design was actually closer to
sketch emphasizing symbolic qualities instead of being a completely
comprehensive urban plan like the other contestants is submitted Brasilia went on to become the city it
is today one marked by extreme disparity between the rich core and the poor
periphery this reality differs markedly from the Utopia of socio-economic
equality that the Brazilian people were expecting and that the architects
purportedly planned so what went wrong kubacheck appeared to be on the side of
citizens in their hunt for socio-economic equality and Brazilian
citizens still look back at him and his political actions with high regard and
approval during his time in office he brought 80% industrial growth it’s
possible that despite this facade of socialism the underlying forces of the
city’s development supported a completely different agenda a response
to this is revealed when looking at aspects of the city’s design in the
intentions of contemporary politicians such as kubacheck not only was Brasilia
– the utopian in its equality it was also to be futuristic in its structure
and transport infrastructure the entire city was built on scaled cars because
the car was viewed as a transportation method of the future cars were
prioritized so heavily that citizens cannot even access many areas of city by
simply travelling on foot or bike this is our starting point for answering the
question about what went wrong with Brasilia we can see that from the time
of its planning Brasilia was destined to be anything but a socio-economic utopia
which is made clear by looking at the invention that inspired the city’s
layout the car scholar Thomas Dekker claims that Lucio
Costa was motivated to design brasilia around cards because of the inspiration
from General Motors Futurama exhibit in 1939 this exhibit presented a utopian
view of the future twenty years ahead highly regulated highways traffic
systems and widespread auto infrastructure enabled cities to be more
expansive and gave rise to suburbs of comfortable living and now we have
arrived in this wonder world of 1960 here is a highway intersection highway
engineering at its most spectacular traffic may move safely and easily
without loss of speed by means of the ramped loops cars may
make right and left turds at rates of speed up to 50 miles per hour
here is an American city replanned around a highly developed modern traffic
system the parks of the city have continuity proper placement these areas
are united into long green strips surrounding each community Priscilla’s inspiration from Futurama is
highly visible in its road layout Decker also contends of heavy integration of
cars into brazilians design a line of president kvish X desire to boost
brazil’s developing auto industry it’s clear that kubacheck valued the
development of Brazil’s economy and saw the auto industry as a means for Brazil
to assert the place in the global capitalist world in fact this very car
was manufacturing Raziel and can therefore be seen as a product of these
efforts to prefer sales auto industry on to the global map but there’s more here
not only does a car connect to capitalist ideals a form of the
automation but the car itself is a symbol the intentions of capitalist
societies this point is articulated by historian Peter Norton who cites the
causes of cars rise to popularity in society as evidence for an argument
about self-driving cars today the transportation planning that
predominates today arose during the era when public relations was being invented
and it was being invented because it was starting to look like people had all the
stuff they wanted so you had to convince people that they had needs they didn’t
know her needs like say bad breath had to convince them that they needed
shampoo which they didn’t use before and he had to convince people that they
needed to be able to drive anywhere anytime without delay and have a free
parking spot when they arrived none of those needs were needs that
began as demands from ordinary people all of those needs were sold to people
and they were sold with really amazing showmanship when the auto industry was
beginning to take root car manufacturers realized that based on the existing way
of life people did not need cars to successfully transport around these
companies saw an opportunity to use the car to revolutionize transit
infrastructure to favor their business interests by committing people that they
needed cars and by convincing governments like Brazil’s to build
highway systems to support these cars this vision of the future and transfers
Ilias planners and they neglected the possibility that a car future may not
even be advantageous in fact if you look at the history you’ll find that this
world around us is the result of an effort to sell us and sell our
governments on the notion that we have to rebuild our world for
cars what we thought was so desirable turns out to be an illusion when we make
that realization that might help us appreciate what we already have even
what we once had but lost namely cities where if we want a cup of coffee we can
walk two or three blocks instead of getting in a car and going through a
drive-through why should we be buying this future and sacrificing a present
that works imperfectly for the sake of a future we can’t have it’s clear that the
automotive future that brasilia’s urban planners envisioned would contribute to
the success of the auto industry that was beginning to develop in Brazil
whether or not this would be in the best interest of citizens will now analyze justice Peter Norton said preference for
auto infrastructure leads serve and sprawl in Brasilia we see that the
expansive roadways that have pushed such a sprawled layout after all distance
would not have been a problem for all the car owners that Brazilians planners
were trying to accommodate what about the people in the city who didn’t own
cars in his urban plans Lucio Costa divided the heart of Brasilia into
single used stones a residential zone a commercial zone in a government zone
cost of place the government buildings in a vertical axis through the city
center to reflect their importance perpendicular to this axis is a
horizontal one which acts as the resident
this zone consists of Soviet inspired super block apartments in which people
across all socio-economic classes were supposed to live side by side
it’s a socialist dream but unfortunately this dream was not realized in practice
close to design a city for a maximum 500,000 residents and he did not foresee
the population growth that was to occur the city’s population actually grew from
6,800 23 1957 to 1.8 million in 1993 as the population of the city soared the
privileged upper and middle class bought their way into the super blocks while
the lower class was forced out to the periphery of the city the satellite
cities only grew as the overall population of Brasilia increased being a
capital city most of the activity of Brasilia likely revolves around the
government although the white-collar bureaucrats and government officials
held from middle and upper-class neighborhoods in the city centre the
existent need for workers to support those in charge through various forms of
low-skilled labor recalling that the poor populations of Brasilia are
concentrated in the city’s periphery and that the government activities are
concentrating the core we can acknowledge the need for sufficient
transport infrastructure from the periphery to the core of the city the
car centric infrastructure of the city emphasizes the importance of owning car
in the drawbacks and not owning load cars are almost necessary for travelling
multiple miles that said the number of car owning individuals is dramatically
lower in Brazilians periphery than it is in the core according to the 2010
Brazilian census 20 5307 households have access to an automobile in the auto
school district the southern part of the residential axis meanwhile a mere nine
thousand nine hundred eighty four households have an automobile access and
Platina a satellite city located approximately forty kilometres from
central Brasilia the populations of the two districts are roughly equivalent
78,000 answered eighty-three in a school in seventy 1657
in plan Edina yet over double the number of people open cars in Azusa within and
plan’ll Tia the fact that the lower-class has been forced away from
Brasilia centre puts them at a proximal disadvantage in engaging the city’s
primary services and contributing to the supporting workforce of the government
zone and this disadvantage is only amplified by a large number of
lower-class citizens who do not own cars in such a car focus city although the
city did not have a developed public transit system when it was built it now
has a bus system yet riders are forced to pay one the highest bus tariffs in
nation when traveling from a satellite city into central Brasilia the
government’s forcing the lower-class out to the periphery and building the city
of predominantly cars under an infrastructure it leaves almost no room
for lower-class citizens to find work in the city center and better their lives
this is the other opposite of socialist city for asperity seems almost rooted in
its structure in looking at the state of the auto industry in Brazil and the
effects of the widespread automotive infrastructure in Brasilia we can see
that the new capital did not actually turn out to be the socio-economic utopia
that citizens hoped it would be it’s clear that politicians use the socialist
tone publicity to support completely opposite interests who knew that the car
a vehicle that supposedly enables freedom of transportation could
contribute to the system disparity those propagated in Brasilia we can now look
at other cities and analyse how other inventions and ideologies have shaped
them because knowing what we know the truth might be cheaper than what it
seems you

Tagged , ,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *